Well happy Ides of March! It was on this day, the Ides (or 15th) of March that Julius Caesar was assassinated in the Forum. The day has lived in infamy, as they say, ever since, fascinating scholars, historians and moralists.
Was Brutus the villain or Caesar? The question is still being debated for remember, the victors write the history and Augustus, Caesar’s nephew would be the eventual victor.
For ancient Romans living before that event an ides was merely one of several common calendar terms used to mark monthly lunar events. The ides simply marked the appearance of the full moon.
But the Ides of March assumed a whole new identity after the events of 44 B.C. The phrase came to represent a specific day of abrupt change that set off a ripple of repercussions throughout Roman society and beyond. “The Ides”, as Cicero later wrote “changed everything”.
By the time of Caesar, Rome had a long-established republican government headed by two consuls with joint powers. Praetors were one step below consuls in the power chain and handled judicial matters. A body of citizens forming the Senate proposed legislation, which general people’s assemblies then approved by vote. A special temporary office, that of dictator, was established for use only during times of extreme civil unrest.
The Romans had no love for kings. According to legend, they expelled their last one in 509 B.C. While Caesar had made pointed and public displays of turning down offers of kingship, he showed no reluctance to accept the office of “dictator for life” in February 44 B.C. It is this act which probably sealed his fate.
Caesar had pushed the envelope for some time before his death. He was the first living Roman ever to appear on coinage. Some historians suspect that Caesar might have been attempting to establish a cult in his honor in a move towards deification.
Whether or not Caesar was a true tyrant is debated still to this day. It is safe to say, however, that in the mind of Marcus Brutus, who helped mastermind the attack, the threat Caesar posed to the republican system was clear.
Brutus’s involvement in the murder is made tragic given his close affiliations with Caesar. His mother, Servilia, was one of Caesar’s lovers. And although Brutus had fought against Caesar and with Pompey during Rome’s recent civil war, he was spared from death and later promoted by Caesar to the office of praetor. Caesar seemed to like to cultivate young talent. On the other hand, maybe Caesar let Brutus live only as a sop to Servilia.
Brutus, however, was torn in his allegiance to Caesar. Brutus’s family had a tradition of rejecting authoritarian powers. Ancestor Junius Brutus was credited with throwing out the last king of Rome in 509 B.C. An ancestor of Marcus Brutus’s mother, had killed another tyrant. This lineage, coupled with a strong interest in the Greek idea of tyranicide, disposed Brutus to have little patience with perceived power grabbers.
The final blow came when his uncle Cato, a father figure to Brutus, killed himself in 46 B.C. Cato too, was a supporter of Pompey and, having been on the losing side, committed suicide. It was considered the honorable thing to do. Brutus may have felt shame over accepting Caesar’s clemency while his uncle killed himself and perhaps felt obligation to do Cato honor by continuing his quest to “save” the republic from Caesar.
It is this moral dilemma that has caused debate over whether or not Brutus should be branded a villain. Plutarch’s Life of Brutus is quite sympathetic when compared to other surviving documents naming Caesar’s enemies.
Shakespeare later used Plutarch’s Brutus as one of the bases for his play Julius Caesar, where Brutus is portrayed as a tragic hero and Caesar as an unequivocal tyrant. The poet Dante, however, took a different stance: Brutus, in killing the man who spared him, was doomed to the lowest levels of hell.
Scholars disagree on just who was the on the side of “good.”. Probably neither side is entirely in the clear. We’re dealing with very brutal and ruthless men on both sides.
Brutus and his BFF / brother in law, Cassius Longinus would die at Philippi in Greece fighting against the legions of Octavian and Antony. Soon they too would be at each other’s throats with Octavian emerging as the Emperor Augustus.
In the end, the Ides became a reminder to future rulers. Octavian seems to have been aware of the problems of presenting himself as Caesar had and The Ides became a lesson in political self-presentation,
So, is it ok to kill a tyrant? How do you know one when you see one?
Interesting questions for another day.
Happy Ides (which is tomorrow)
Today is National Pi Day!
Reblogged this on Will the real reality please stand up!.
Lassy – many thanks for the re-blog! Regards
Also according to Plutarch, in his “Life of Poplicola,” the most ancient law of Rome was that it was permitted to kill anyone who seemed determined to make himself a king, and any explanations could come afterward.
As for the Roman music–imagine how disappointed people are going to be, 2,000 years from now, when they rediscover rap and heavy metal. They will be right to wonder what was wrong with us.
Lee – yup. Explain yourself later. As for our music, well…………..:-)
Regards and thanks for reading.
Reblogged this on First Night History.
Sarah – many thanks for the re-blog! Regards.
“The Ides”, as Cicero later wrote “changed everything”.
This is a sobering quote for me. Two decades ago, my life took a major downturn on March 15, the Ides. But that is ‘ancient history’;-)
I love the fact that Brutus hated ‘power grabbers’, since this is most likely how many common Romans felt about him and his cohorts!
Where did you study history? A degree, perhaps, or just an interest?
Sojourner – I’ve always read history and politics. Never much of anything else. A long time ago I had been accepted to a prestigious university as a graduate student in history. For many personal reasons it was not possible to attend. I enjoy Roman and 20th century European history, particularly involving Italy. Regards and thanks for reading.
Hope 3/15 is not too bad a day for you.
I am not surprised, by what you have shared, here!
I have adjusted to the Ides of March, over the years. But at first, as insane as this sounds, I dreaded this day in March!
Thanks. Keep keeping us informed!
Here’s a great talk about Michael Parenti on the assassination of Julius Caesar. He believes Caesar was a deliberately demonized by the rich elite for his populist politics – just like Noriega, Milosoveic, Saddam Hussein, Gaddaf – and now Putini: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_IO_Ldn2H4o
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Hi Doc – Indeed Julius Caesar aligned himself with the “Populares”, the organized lower classes formed into a coalition a century earlier by the Gracchi brothers – Rome’s “first socialists”. Brutus, like his uncle Cato was a supporter of the Optimates – the aristocracy. Caesar, like the Gracchi brothers was assassinated by the Optimates. Brutus and his supporters had to flee the Roman mobs after the murder. There is a reason that a conservative think-tank is called the Cato Institute! 🙂
Yes, the neo-feudalists / aristocrats — oops — I mean the ‘republican democrats’ do know their history and on which side of it and against whom they stand. I’d forgotten that Parenti had written a book on the ‘watershed’ moment, and I admit that I haven’t read yet. It’s on the ‘to read’ list now, but for later. There is so much to read and so little time. And that’s what I like about this “alternative media,” you never know what revealing truths await your next perusal. A nod of appreciation to both you and “the Doc,” Toritto. And when I get the chance, I’ll watch the Parenti video. He really is a great speaker and writer, passionate, informed, intense, and sometimes withering.
A request: may I integrate your post together with Michael Parenti’s talk on Julius Caesar? Unfortunately, to do so, I must copy and paste. I will of course properly attribute your work.
Great article,Julius Caesar destroyed his own legacy for wanting to be worshiped.My regards.
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Norman – feel free! Regards and thanks.
Norman – you may also be interested in this :
Norman – and you might also like this:
Regards and many thanks.
Hubby and I have been known to ‘celebrate’ the Ides of March as a sort of ‘beware, something crazy might happen to you’ sort of thing….thank you for the historical refresher on this!
Laura – Well hope you had a nice celebration today! 🙂
Thanks for reading and commenting. Regards.
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